What is Charding?
Charding – a method of separating and storing a single logical data set in the form of many databases. Another definition of cartooning is a horizontal data separation.
When and who invented a cartoon?
The concept of cartooning has been used in managing traditional centralized databases since the late 1990s. The term “char” (fragment) was spread thanks to one of the first multi-user role-playing online games, Ultima Online, in which the developers distributed players in various servers (different “worlds” in the game) to cope with traffic.
Popular scenario for the use of cartoon in business – separating the database of users according to geographical locations. Users related to one geographical location are combined into one group and are placed on a unique server.
What is a cartoon in the context of the blockchain?
Blockchain is a database with nodes representing individual servers. With regard to blockchain, Charding involves the separation of the blockchain network into individual segments (hearts). Each Shard contains a unique set of smart contracts and account balance.
Behind each hearth, a node is assigned, verifying transactions and operations, in contrast to the scheme in which each node is responsible for the verification of each transaction throughout the network.
The division of blockchain into more controlled segments allows you to increase the throughput of transactions and thereby solve the scalability problem that most modern blockchains encounter.
How Charding works?
Explanation on the example of Ethereum:
Ethereum blockchain consists of thousands of computers or NODs, each of which “pushes” the network a certain volume of the hash. It is this hashReite that allows Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) to function-perform smart contracts and manage decentralized applications (Dapps).
Ethereum is currently working on the basis of a sequential execution in which each of the GCD should calculate each operation and process each transaction. Therefore, passing the verification process transactions requires significant time: Ethereum carries out about 10 transactions per second, while VISA, for example, this indicator around 24,000.
Adding computers to a network does not necessarily increase efficiency, since the entire register is stored on each device, and the verification chain simply becomes longer.
The idea of a cartoon is to abandon the model in which each node should calculate each operation, in favor of a model of parallel execution, in which the nodes only process certain calculations. This allows you to simultaneously process many transactions.
Blockchain is divided into separate hearts (subdomains or segments). Nodes control only the part of the registry to which they are attached (perform processes and confirm transactions), and do not support the entire register.
What problems Charding solves?
Charding – a potential solution to the problem of scaling.
The more popular the blockchain becomes, the more users initiate transactions, the launch of decentralized applications and other processes on the network. As a result, the speed of transactions falls, which prevents the expansion of blockchain in the long run. The growth of transactional activity requires the NOD to intensify the process of transaction verification. There is a threat that these blockchains can “clog”, as happened with Ethereum during the period of Cryptokitties, when the game accounted for 11% of the network transactions.
If groups of GCDs are responsible for individual segments, then each node does not need to support the entire register to perform each operation. Therefore, validation of transactions can be carried out in a parallel rather than linear way, which increases the speed of the network. Thus, the problem of scaling is solved.
What are the shortcomings of a cartoon?
The main problems of cartooning are communication and safety. If you divide the blockchain into isolated segments, then each char will become a separate network. Users and applications of one subdomain will not be able to communicate with users and applications of another subdomain, without applying a special mechanism of communication.
A security problem also arises in the segmented blockchain, since it is easier for hackers to capture one char – due to the smaller hashReite required to control individual segments (the so -called attack 1%).
After capturing the segment, attackers can send invalid transactions to the main network. Also, data in this particular segment can become invalid and are irrevocably lost. Ethereum offers a solution in the form of a randomized sample – the charm protocols are randomly assigned to various sections to confirm the authentication of blocks.
What are the alternatives of a cartoon?
The developers proposed two solutions to increase the performance and speed of transactions in blockchains.
The first solution is to increase the size of the block. A key idea – the larger the size of the block, the more transactions can be placed in it and, therefore, the greater the number of transactions per second.
However, the larger the block, the more computing power is necessary for its verification. If the size of the unit is increased significantly, then only the most powerful computers can control the computing power necessary for activity as a node.
The high cost of such computer equipment means that the NOD pools will inevitably become smaller and https://gagarin.news/news/what-is-a-dao-in-crypto/ more centralized, which increases the risk of attacks 51%. An increase in the size of the block also requires a hard fork, which threatens the split of the community: if not all users accept the update, then two different circuits will arise using different coins. An increase in the size of the block cannot be a long -term solution.
The second sentence is to use altcoins so that various functions and applications are implemented on their own networks with their own coins.
This model will increase performance, since a single blockchain will not be overloaded, but also increase safety risks, since the computing power will be distributed by several blockchains. Again, the risk of hacking the network will increase and because the computing power required to carry out an attack of 51%will be much less.
Who uses cartoon?
Zilliqa is the first platform that introduced cartoon. At the dusk stage, she managed to reach the indicator of 2828 transactions per second.
NEAR blockchain ecosystem allows developers to create and apply decentralized applications. NEAR calls itself a “cartridged blockchain on POS” and claims that its handling technology allows Nodam to remain small enough to function on low -performance devices – potentially even on mobile phones.
Ethereum offers an ecosystem of blockchain to introduce DAPPS based on smart contracts. Ethereum Foundation plans to include a cartoon in the updated version of the Ethereum 2 protocol.0.
Among other projects working with projects: Cardano, Quarkchain and Pchain.
What is the future of a cartoon?
Sharding technology appears in White Paper digital currency Libra. On the eve of the launch, Facebook acquired ChainSpace, whose developers team specializes in a cartoon. Specific details are still unknown, but we can assume that a type of cartoon will introduce the Libra blockchain.
Charding can theoretically become a solution to the so -called blockchain trillema.
Blockchain trilems, as Vitalik Buterin explained, is that only two of the three key features of the blockchain – safety, decentralization and scalability can be preserved at the same time. If you overcome the difficulties that the cartoon encounters, then it will be possible to scald distributed networks without sacrificing decentralization or safety.